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Islam, Judaism, and Christianity: Theological and Historical Affiliations (Heribert BUSSE)

Islam, Judaism, and Christianity: Theological and Historical Affiliations (…)

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Heribert Busse est Professeur émérite à l’Université de Kiel à l’institut des études islamiques (Islamwissenschaft)


Islam is by nature and history related to Judaism and Christianity. Muhammad grappled with conflicting attitudes toward both religions for a long period before opting for his own way. Ultimately, he acknowledged Judaism and Christianity as independent but less legitimate religions than Islam.

The book opens with an analysis of the religious and political situation on the Arab peninsula and neighboring countries in Muhammad’s time, including the role of the Jews, Christian groups and other eminent religions, sanctuaries, and merchant routes, all in relation to Muhammad’s life and work. A final section covers the practice of co-existence of these three religions through the centuries up to the modern era.

This book illustrates with examples and citations the many ways in which Muhammad used biblical narratives to illustrate faith and actions in the spirit of the Koran, and how the prophet familiarized himself with a significant corpus of Old Testament texts through Christian transmission.
Included are major narratives from the Old Testament that are retold in the Koran: the stories of Cain and Abel, Abraham and the construction or cleansing of the Ka’ba, Moses (who appears in 40 sections), Saul, Goliath, David, and Solomon, among many others.

The analysis of narratives of the New Testament in the Koran includes the life of Jesus, the Last Supper, Muhammad’s argument that Jesus was a human rather than God, and the denial of the Crucifixion.

Table des matières


The Religious Context on the Arabian Peninsula at the Time of Muhammad

  • Political and Religious Background
  • Trading Activities of Meccan Merchants; Ethiopia
  • Relationship to the Jews
  • The Meccan Sanctuary
  • The Hanȵfs
  • Muhammad’s Sources

The People of the Book (ahl al-kitaµb)

  • Unity and Diversity in their Religion
  • Jews and Christians
  • The Transgressions of the Jews
  • Muhammad’s Assessment of the Christians
  • Severance with the People of the Book
  • The Religion of Abraham

Narratives from the Old Testament

  • An Overview
  • The Creation, Paradise, and the Fall
  • Cain and Abel
  • The Flood and Other Divine Judgments
  • Abraham (Ibraµhȵm)
  • Joseph (Yuµsuf)
  • Moses (Muµsaµ) and the Israelites
  • The Kings of the Israelites
  • The End of the Israelites

Narratives from the New Testament

  • An Overview
  • Jesus (Yeshua) in the Salvation History
  • Jesus Saves his Mother (sura 19:1-33)
  • The Rejection of Jesus and the Falsification of God’s Word; Gethsemane and the Last Supper
  • Jesus’ Sermon
  • The Crucifixion (sura 4: 156-157)

The Present-Day Situation and its Foundation in History

  • Introductory Comments
  • The Conquests; Muslims and non-Muslims
  • The Situation of Jews and Christians in the Islamic State
  • Islam in Europe; Islamic Missionization
  • Dialogue instead of Missionization
  • Conditions for a Dialogue and its Subject Matter

Index of Proper Names
Index of Koran Verses

(Source :

View online : aperçu de l’ouvrage (éd. 1998)